I believe there is a significant question concerning our understanding of the nature of salvation. It is a question that has great bearing upon the Christian's spiritual psychology as to how he or she views God's grace and the hope of salvation in general. The question being,
When a sinner is saved is his hope of eternal life secure and most certain, or must he fret over the possibility of forfeiting his salvation with the committal of some unknown sin which will cause him to forsake his relationship with the Lord and thus bring him to being disowned by God and ultimate eternal damnation? In other words, is a Christian's salvation eternally secure, or is it conditioned upon his ability and willingness to maintain it with his good works of obedience?
Can a Christian lose his salvation?
Now some who read this may ask why it matters. Historically, however, this is one of the key defining distinctions between classic Roman Catholicism and the Reformed, Protestant faith which reclaimed the Christian faith in the 1500s.
Roman Catholicism taught, and still teaches, that Christ's death merely makes a sinner saveable. Christ's atonement on the cross did not specifically secure anyone's salvation, but only opened up the opportunity for all men to be justified by their own merit as they cooperate with the Holy Spirit.
Thus, a person's justification is not grounded upon the finished work of Christ alone, but is dependent upon the person's devotion to Catholic sacramentalism and it has to be a faithful devotion unless the person forfeits his or her hope of salvation by committing any sorts of sin. In order to accomplish his faithful devotion, the person is first to be baptized, where at which point the Holy Spirit is infused in him so he now has the opportunity to be a faithful follower of Christ. His "faithfulness" is then defined by keeping the mass, going to confession, praying the rosary, paying alms, going on pilgrimages. At the end of his life, the faithful Catholic will be given last rites before death, where after death he enters purgatory to spend time burning off any remaining sins that will still stain him and then it is only after his release from purgatory that the person can be even certain of final salvation as he is ushered into the presence of the blessed Virgin Mother and her dear Son.
The Reformers on the other hand correctly taught that a sinner's salvation is not at all grounded in any human efforts he or she brings to the salvific table as it were. Instead, salvation as outlined in the whole of scripture is based upon God's gracious determination to save a people unto Himself. That determination was established in eternity past and is made complete in the Cross work of Jesus Christ. Christ's death and Resurrection both turns away God's just wrath against those sinners and in turn most certainly secures their salvation. On account of Christ, the sinner is now justified in a divine legal transaction in which Christ's perfect righteousness clothes him, thus reconciling him to God in a permanent relationship.
There was nothing a sinner could do to earn God's saving favor while he was in a state of rebellion against God and there is nothing the sinner can do after he is made right with God to maintain a standard of holiness to keep divine favor as he now lives unto God. His salvation was graciously imparted to him by Christ's justifying work and his righteousness is also maintained by God's empowering grace working in his life. Hence, a sinner is saved by grace, kept by grace, and can be confident of eternal life because of that grace.
The first view of salvation - the historic Roman Catholic view - can be broken up into two important thoughts:
1) Christ's death did not secure the salvation of any one person particularly, but only made all men saveable,
2) eternal life is conditioned upon the synergistic effort of a person exercising good works in cooperation with God's Spirit in order to maintain proper obedience so as not to forfeit salvation.
These two points are essential in understanding why certain believers insist that a Christian can lose his salvation. For if Christ's death did not secure any one person's salvation, but merely made all people saveable, and that saveability is dependent upon the person first believing with faith and then continuing in cooperation with God's Spirit as he accomplishes good works as outlined in the Bible, then any departure from the stated objectives for maintaining his salvation can very possibly place that salvation in peril with the risk of losing it forever. God has clearly upheld His end of the salvation plan, it is argued, by making a way for men to be saved. If the sinner does forfeit his eternal life by engaging in some form of disobedience, then God cannot be blamed for cutting him off. He had done what was needed to be done in order for a sinner to be saved and it was the sinner's fault for not maintaining the necessary steps to be pleasing to the Lord.
This position, in my opinion, not only makes God into an impotent deity with no power to actually save anyone, at least without the cooperation of the sinful person, but it still remains a works oriented faith. A works oriented faith really doesn't distinguish the uniqueness of what Christianity is as the only true way to heaven from all the other false religions. On top of this, I believe it makes God into being a liar as to His promise to give eternal life to those who believe in faith. John states that the purpose of God sending His son into the world was to give eternal life to those who will believe in Him. Is that a legitimate promise or not? And if it is a legitimate promise, then why can't I be assured that God will come through with His promise in spite of my faults? I could not trust the word of God if I could lose my salvation with some spiritual mis-step.
The doctrine of eternal security doesn't hang alone. Eternal life with God is the consummation of all the doctrines of salvation. The whole purpose of God decreeing His plan of salvation, electing a people to be called by His name, sending His Son to redeem those people, and then sending forth His Holy Spirit to empower those people to live righteously, is to securely bring those people into eternal life. To suggest a Christian can lose his salvation undoes the divine work leading up to eternal life.
I believe the doctrine of conditional security is a false one. I would even dare to say it is blasphemous. The idea of losing one's salvation runs counter to at least seven important doctrines pertaining to God's salvation of men. I would like to consider each on in turn. Let me begin with the first in this article:
I. Conditional Security is Contrary to the Doctrine of the New Birth
I don't believe I need to track down all the references concerning the sinfulness of men as revealed in scripture. The Bible tells us men are more than just ignorant, passive sinners in need of a savior. They are active spiritual rebels, acting in treason against their creator. Not only are they unable to do anything pleasing to their God, they are utterly unwilling. Sinful men knowingly suppress the truth of God they have in their hearts by inventing fanciful philosophies and religions to excuse away any obligation they have to submit themselves to their creator. They hate God and wish to have nothing to do with Him.
Additionally, man is placed under a divine, judicial judgment being separated from any true, intimate fellowship with God. That separation manifests itself as lacking spiritual understanding to God and His ways. Sinners are described in Ephesians 4:17ff. as having darkened minds, living in ignorance, having blind hearts and rather than living in obedience to God's laws they give themselves over to lewdness and uncleanness. This condition within sinners is expressed in ethical inconsistencies, foolish and rash decision making, the pursuit of personal folly, and life choices that often lead to the person's ultimate ruin and in some cases death.
If the sinner, then, is going to believe in faith, trust Christ, and turn from his treasonous ways, a divine work must take place in the heart of the sinner to re-orient him toward, and re-unite him with, his creator. That is the work of the new birth. We also know it as regeneration.
The new birth is primarily the Apostle John's terminology as he was quoting Jesus. The main passage describing the new birth is found in John's Gospel when he recounts Nicodemus's interview with Jesus in 3:1-15. The main word is gennao and in its various grammatical forms it can be translated as begotton by God, born-again, as it is in John 3, or born from above. John also uses this terminology in his epistles, particularly his first epistle in 1 John 2:29, 3:9, 4:7, 5:1, 5:4, and 5:18.
Paul also speaks to the spiritual work of regeneration in the lives of sinners, though he uses specific imagery to describe God's work. He equates regeneration or being born-again with a spiritual resurrection in Ephesians 2:5 and Colossians 2:13 when he describes the work as being made alive. He also speaks of regeneration as spiritual circumcision in Romans 2:29 and again in Colossians 2:11-13. James uses the expression brought us forth to describe the new birth in James 1:18, and Peter uses the expression born-again or begetting anew in his first epistle (1 Peter 1:23).
When taken together in their contexts, these passages tell us the work of regeneration re-creates the sinner to newness of life. The re-creation he experiences is a divine work coming directly from God alone. In other words, God is the direct agent facilitating this work. Nothing within the sinner can effect this change. Moreover the regeneration is permanent and cannot be undone by the believer. Regeneration removes the defilement of the sinner's heart having it cleansed and washed away. As a result a new principle of righteousness exists in his heart. His thoughts are re-oriented toward God. He understands spiritual things and no long lives in a cloud of spiritual darkness. Rather, the sinner who is forgiven of his sins and is identified with Christ, now lives unto the Lord, no longer in spiritual rebellion, but has a heart willingly submitted to God and pursues righteousness while shunning the life of sin.
There are at least three thoughts in response to this position of conditional security:
1) I believe it is clear the Bible reveals that the new birth is alone the work of God. The sinner, in his sinful state, has no interest nor desire to come to God. Left to his sinfulness, he will only weary himself to resist God. How then can the sinner reject a work that is not his to begin with? It doesn't originate with him, nor does he even wish to pursue it. Unless there is a over-riding presupposition of total libertarian free-will that permits the newly regenerated Christian to return to a life of sin, but such a concept of the will is foreign to the Bible's description of man.
2) According to the biblical data, regeneration is the transforming of a sinner into a new person. A radical heart change takes place at the hands of God. The person is spiritually resurrected. The divine work is so thoroughly whole and complete with its effects upon a sinner that once born again the sinner will not walk away. Ephesians 2:10 tells us we are God's workmanship created unto good works and Colossians 1:13 says God's regenerating work transfers us from the kingdom of the devil and places us into the kingdom of Christ.
To suggest we can lose our salvation means we have it in our power to take out the heart of flesh that was given to us by God and replace it with the heart of stone God initially took out of us (Ezekiel 36:26). It means we have it in our power to renounce our citizenship in Christ's kingdom and transfer back to the kingdom of the devil. It would be like Lazarus committing suicide a couple of days after being raised from the dead by Jesus (John 11).
3) All the biblical data tells us that God's promise of the lasting effects of regeneration are sure. The person's desires will always be to pursue righteousness. Persisting in sin grieves him and though he may stumble in sin, his longings will be to overcome it. Why would God go to the great lengths of sacrifice to redeem a people called by His name, promise them eternal life, give His Only Begotten Son to secure the salvation of these people, initiate spiritual birth in their hearts, when such a great and awesome work has no lasting value and can potentially be undone? What would be the purpose? Just so we can say God wants men to enjoy his "freewill?" Such a theology devalues the power of God to save.
Please let me know about new Articles & Bible Studies from Fred's Bible Talk.
© Copyright 2002-2007 Fred Butler All Rights Reserved